Single layer piezoelectric driving deformable mirror (Unimorph DM) with large deformation, simple fabrication process and low cost has been widely applied for the adaptive optics system in recent years. In the past, the optimal design of deformable mirror is often used in analytic method, and made much simplified approximation in theory. This results in large error between theoretic and real system. In this paper, the influence laws between the fitting error and the effective aperture, and the spatial distribution are studied by the dynamic–electricity coupling simulation method. The relationship between the displacement and the thickness of the mirror, the diameter and thickness of the electrode and the width of the support ring are discussed. According to these rules, a scheme of optimizing the structure of deformable mirror has been proposed, and the key parameters are designed according to the requirements of the retinal imaging system. In the end, all the fitting errors of former Zernike items 3-30 are less than 0.4 with the rated voltage of 400V.