Climate change is considered to be the biggest environmental threat in the future in the South- Eastern part of Europe. In frame of predicted global warming, urban climate is an important issue in scientific research. Surface energy processes have an essential role in urban weather, climate and hydrosphere cycles, as well in urban heat redistribution. This paper investigated the influences of urban growth on thermal environment in relationship with other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania. Remote sensing data from Landsat TM/ETM+ and time series MODIS Terra/Aqua sensors have been used to assess urban land cover– climate interactions over period between 2000 and 2015 years. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also analyzed in relation with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at city level. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, and urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.