15 March 2016 Fourth near-infrared optical window for assessment of bone and other tissues
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Recently, additional near-infrared (NIR) optical windows beyond the conventional first therapeutic window have been utilized for deep tissue imaging through scattering media. Biomedical applications using a second optical window (1100 to 1300 nm) and a third (1600 to 1870 nm) are emerging. A fourth window (2100 to 2300 nm) has been largely ignored due to high water absorption and a lack of high sensitivity imaging detectors and ultrafast laser sources. In this study, optical properties of bone in this fourth NIR optical window, were investigated. Results were compared to those seen at the first, second and third windows, and are consistent with our previous work on malignant and benign breast and prostate tissues. Bone and malignant tissues showed highest uptake in the third and fourth windows. As collagen is a major chromophore with prominent spectral peaks between 2100 and 2300 nm, it may be that the fourth optical window is particularly useful for studying tissues with a higher collagen content, such as bone or malignant tumors.
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Diana C. Sordillo, Diana C. Sordillo, Laura A. Sordillo, Laura A. Sordillo, Peter P. Sordillo, Peter P. Sordillo, Robert R. Alfano, Robert R. Alfano, "Fourth near-infrared optical window for assessment of bone and other tissues", Proc. SPIE 9689, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XII, 96894J (15 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2214320; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214320

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