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9 March 2016 All optical experimental design for neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection
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Recently, infrared light has been shown to both stimulate and inhibit excitatory cells. However, studies of infrared light for excitatory cell inhibition have been constrained by the use of invasive and cumbersome electrodes for cell excitation and action potential recording. Here, we present an all optical experimental design for neuronal excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection. Primary rat neurons were transfected with plasmids containing the light sensitive ion channel CheRiff. CheRiff has a peak excitation around 450 nm, allowing excitation of transfected neurons with pulsed blue light. Additionally, primary neurons were transfected with QuasAr2, a fast and sensitive fluorescent voltage indicator. QuasAr2 is excited with yellow or red light and therefore does not spectrally overlap CheRiff, enabling imaging and action potential activation, simultaneously. Using an optic fiber, neurons were exposed to blue light sequentially to generate controlled action potentials. A second optic fiber delivered a single pulse of 1869nm light to the neuron causing inhibition of the evoked action potentials (by the blue light). When used in concert, these optical techniques enable electrode free neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential recording, allowing research into neuronal behaviors with high spatial fidelity.
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Alex J. Walsh, Gleb Tolstykh, Stacey Martens, Anna Sedelnikova, Bennett L. Ibey, and Hope T. Beier "All optical experimental design for neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection", Proc. SPIE 9690, Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics; Neural Imaging and Sensing; and Optogenetics and Optical Manipulation, 96901P (9 March 2016);

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