The schwannomas is a tumour of the tissue that covers nerves, called the nerve sheath. Schwannomas are often benign tumors of the Schwan cells, which are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Preoperative diagnosis of this lesion usually is difficult, therefore, new techniques are being studied as pre surgical evaluation. Among these, Raman spectroscopy, that enables the biochemical identification of the tissue analyzed by their optical properties, may be used as a tool for schwannomas diagnosis. The aim of this study was to discriminate between normal nervous tissue and schwannoma through the confocal Raman spectroscopy and Raman optical fiber-based techniques combined with immunohistochemical analysis. Twenty spectra were analyzed from a normal nerve tissue sample (10) and schwannoma (10) by Holospec f / 1.8 (Kayser Optical Systems) coupled to an optical fiber with a 785nm laser line source. The data were pre-processed and vector normalized. The average analysis and standard deviation was performed associated with cluster analysis. AML, 1A4, CD34, Desmin and S-100 protein markers were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive only for protein S-100 marker which confirmed the neural schwanomma originality. The immunohistochemistry analysis were important to determine the source of the injury, whereas Raman spectroscopy were able to differentiated tissues types indicating important biochemical changes between normal and benign neoplasia.