5 April 2016 Increasing the penetration depth for ultrafast laser tissue ablation using glycerol based optical clearing
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Abstract
Background: Deep tissue ablation is the next challenge in ultrafast laser microsurgery. By focusing ultrafast pulses below the tissue surface one can create an ablation void confined to the focal volume. However, as the ablation depth increases in a scattering tissue, increase in the required power can trigger undesired nonlinear phenomena out of focus that restricts our ability to ablate beyond a maximum ablation depth of few scattering lengths. Optical clearing (OC) might reduce the intensity and increase the maximal ablation depth by lowering the refractive index mismatch, and therefore reducing scattering. Some efforts to ablate deeper showed out of focus damage, while others used brutal mechanical methods for clearing. Our clinical goal is to create voids in the scarred vocal folds and inject a biomaterial to bring back the tissue elasticity and restore phonation.
Materials and methods: Fresh porcine vocal folds were excised and applied a biocompatible OC agent (75% glycerol). Collimated transmittance was monitored. The tissue was optically cleared and put under the microscope for ablation threshold measurements at different depths.
Results: The time after which the tissue was optically cleared was roughly two hours. Fitting the threshold measurements to an exponential decay graph indicated that the scattering length of the tissue increased to 83±16 μm, which is more than doubling the known scattering length for normal tissue.
Conclusion: Optical clearing with Glycerol increases the tissue scattering length and therefore reduces the energy for ablation and increases the maximal ablation depth. This technique can potentially improve clinical microsurgery.
Conference Presentation
© (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Ilan Gabay, Ilan Gabay, Kaushik G. Subramanian, Kaushik G. Subramanian, Chris Martin, Chris Martin, Murat Yildirim, Murat Yildirim, Valery V. Tuchin, Valery V. Tuchin, Adela Ben-Yakar, Adela Ben-Yakar, "Increasing the penetration depth for ultrafast laser tissue ablation using glycerol based optical clearing", Proc. SPIE 9707, Dynamics and Fluctuations in Biomedical Photonics XIII, 97070X (5 April 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2213482; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213482
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