Cellular responses to oxygen tension have been studied extensively, optical imaging techniques based on time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) to detect the underlying metabolic mechanisms are therefore of prominent interest. They offer the possibility by inspecting fluorescence decay characteristics of intrinsic coenzymes to directly image metabolic pathways. Moreover oxygen tension can be determined by considering the phosphorescence lifetime of a phosphorescent probe. The combination of both fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of coenzymes like NADH and FAD and phosphorescence lifetime (PLIM) of phosphorescent dyes could provide valuable information about correlation of metabolic pathways and oxygen tension.
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A. Rück, J. Breymayer, S. Kalinina, "Correlated FLIM and PLIM for cell metabolism," Proc. SPIE 9712, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XVI, 971204 (14 March 2016);