4 March 2016 Thermal investigation on high power dfb broad area lasers at 975 nm, with 60% efficiency
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The demand of high power diode lasers in the range of 910-980nm is regularly growing. This kind of device for many applications, such as fiber laser pumping [1], material processing [1], solid-state laser pumping [1], defense and medical/dental. The key role of this device lies in the efficiency (πœ‚πΈ) of converting input electrical power into output optical power. The high value of πœ‚πΈ allows high power level and reduces the need in heat dissipation. The requirement of wavelength stabilization with temperature is more obvious in the case of multimode 975nm diode lasers used for pumping Yb, Er and Yb/Er co-doped solid-state lasers, due to the narrow absorption line close to this wavelength. Such spectral width property (<1 nm), combined with wavelength thermal stabilization (0.07 π‘›π‘š βˆ™ °πΆβˆ’1), provided by a uniform distributed feedback grating (DFB) introduced by etching and re-growth process techniques, is achievable in high power diode lasers using optical feedback. This paper reports on the development of the diode laser structure and the process techniques required to write the gratings taking into account of the thermal dissipation and optical performances. Performances are particularly determined in terms of experimental electro-optical characterizations. One of the main objectives is to determine the thermal resistance of the complete assembly to ensure the mastering of the diode laser temperature for operating condition. The classical approach to determine junction temperature is based on the infrared thermal camera, the spectral measurement and the pulse electrical method. In our case, we base our measurement on the spectral measurement but this approach is not well adapted to the high power diodes laser studied. We develop a new measurement based on the pulse electrical method and using the T3STERΒ© equipment. This method is well known for electronic devices and LEDs but is weakly developed for the high power diodes laser. This crucial measurement compared to spectral one is critical for understand the thermal management of diode laser device and improve the structure based on design for reliability. To have a perfect relation between structure, and their modification, and temperature, FEM simulations are performed using COMSOL software. In this case, we can understand the impact of structure on the isothermal distribution and then reveal the sensitive zones in the diode laser. To validate the simulation, we compare the simulation results to the experimental one and develop an analytical model to determine the different contributions of the thermal heating. This paper reports on the development laser structure and the process techniques required to write the gratings. Performances are particularly characterized in terms of experimental electro-optical characterization and spectral response. The extraction of thermal resistance (Rth) is particularly difficult, because of the implicit low value (Rth β‰ˆ 2𝐾/π‘Š) and the multimodal nature of the diode laser. In such a context, thermal resistance has been measured using a dedicated equipment namely T3STERΒ©. The results have been compared with those given by the well-known technique achieved from the spectrum of the diode laser (central wavelength variations vs temperature) that is more difficult to apply for multimodal diodes laser. The last section deals with thermal simulations based on finite elements method (FEM) modeling in order to estimate junction temperature . This study represent a significant part of the general Design for Reliability (DfR) effort carried out on such devices to produce efficient and reliable high power devices at the industrial level.
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R. Mostallino, M. Garcia, Y. Deshayes, A. Larrue, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, L. Bechou, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Krakowski, "Thermal investigation on high power dfb broad area lasers at 975 nm, with 60% efficiency", Proc. SPIE 9733, High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications XIV, 97330S (4 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2212984; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2212984

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