In the past 15 years, many efforts were made to create functionalized artificial surfaces showing special anti-bacterial and anti-biofouling properties. Thereby, the topography of medical relevant materials plays an important role. However, the targeted fabrication of promising surface structures like hole-, lamella- and pyramid-like patterns with feature sizes in the sub-micrometer range in a one-step process is still a challenge. Optical and e-beam lithography, molding and selfassembly layers show a great potential to design topographies for this purpose. At the same time, most of these techniques are based on sequential processes, require masks or molds and thus are very device relevant and time consuming. In this work, we present the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technology as a capable method for the fast, flexible and direct fabrication of periodic micrometer- and submicrometer structures. This method offers the possibility to equip large plain areas and curved devices with 1D, 2D and 3D patterns. Simple 1D (e.g. lines) and complex 3D (e.g. lamella, pillars) patterns with periodic distances from 0.5 μm to 5 μm were fabricated on polymeric materials (polyimide, polystyrene). Subsequently, we characterized the adhesion behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus bacteria under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results revealed that the topographies have a significant impact on bacteria adhesion. On the one side, one-dimensional line-like structures especially with dimensions of the bacteria enhanced microbe attachment. While on the other hand, complex three-dimensional patterns prevented biofilm formation even after implantation and contamination in living organisms.