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24 February 2016 Erbium-doped zinc-oxide waveguide amplifiers for hybrid photonic integrated circuits
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Proceedings Volume 9744, Optical Components and Materials XIII; 97441G (2016)
Event: SPIE OPTO, 2016, San Francisco, California, United States
CMOS logic circuits have entered the sub-100nm regime, and research is on-going to investigate the quantum effects that are apparent at this dimension. To avoid some of the constraints imposed by fabrication, entropy, energy, and interference considerations for nano-scale devices, many have begun designing hybrid and/or photonic integrated circuits. These circuits consist of transistors, light emitters, photodetectors, and electrical and optical waveguides. As attenuation is a limiting factor in any communications system, it is advantageous to integrate a signal amplifier. There are numerous examples of electrical amplifiers, but in order to take advantage of the benefits provided by optically integrated systems, optical amplifiers are necessary. The erbium doped fiber amplifier is an example of an optical amplifier which is commercially available now, but the distance between the amplifier and the device benefitting from amplification can be decreased and provide greater functionality by providing local, on-chip amplification. Zinc oxide is an attractive material due to its electrical and optical properties. Its wide bandgap (≈3.4 eV) and high refractive index (≈2) make it an excellent choice for integrated optics systems. Moreover, erbium doped zinc oxide (Er:ZnO) is a suitable candidate for optical waveguide amplifiers because of its compatibility with semiconductor processing technology, 1.54 μm luminescence, transparency, low resistivity, and amplification characteristics. This research presents the characterization of radio frequency magnetron sputtered Er:ZnO, the design and fabrication of integrated waveguide amplifiers, and device analysis.
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Lawrence O'Neal, Deion Anthony, Carl Bonner Jr., and Demetris Geddis "Erbium-doped zinc-oxide waveguide amplifiers for hybrid photonic integrated circuits", Proc. SPIE 9744, Optical Components and Materials XIII, 97441G (24 February 2016);

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