27 February 2016 Electrodeposition of ZnO-doped films as window layer for Cd-free CIGS-based solar cells
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Proceedings Volume 9749, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VII; 97491H (2016) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2209327
Event: SPIE OPTO, 2016, San Francisco, California, United States
Abstract
The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cell technology has made a steady progress within the last decade reaching efficiency up to 22.3% on laboratory scale, thus overpassing the highest efficiency for polycrystalline silicon solar cells. High efficiency CIGS modules employ a so-called buffer layer of cadmium sulfide CdS deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD), which presence and Cd-containing waste present some environmental concerns. A second potential bottleneck for CIGS technology is its window layer made of i-ZnO/ZnO:Al, which is deposited by sputtering requiring expensive vacuum equipment. A non-vacuum deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) relying on simpler equipment with lower investment costs will be more economically attractive, and could increase competitiveness of CIGS-based modules with the mainstream silicon-based technologies. In the frame of Novazolar project, we have developed a low-cost aqueous solution photo assisted electrodeposition process of the ZnO-based window layer for high efficiency CIGS-based solar cells. The window layer deposition have been first optimized on classical CdS buffer layer leading to cells with efficiencies similar to those measured with the sputtered references on the same absorber (15%). The the optimized ZnO doped layer has been adapted to cadmium free devices where the CdS is replaced by chemical bath deposited zinc oxysulfide Zn(S,O) buffer layer. The effect of different growth parameters has been studied on CBD-Zn(S,O)-plated co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 substrates provided by the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW). This optimization of the electrodeposition of ZnO:Cl on CIGS/Zn(S,O) stacks led to record efficiency of 14%, while the reference cell with a sputtered (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO:Al window layer has an efficiency of 15.2%.
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Fabien Tsin, Fabien Tsin, Amélie Vénérosy, Amélie Vénérosy, Thibaud Hildebrandt, Thibaud Hildebrandt, Dimitrios Hariskos, Dimitrios Hariskos, Negar Naghavi, Negar Naghavi, Daniel Lincot, Daniel Lincot, Jean Rousset, Jean Rousset, } "Electrodeposition of ZnO-doped films as window layer for Cd-free CIGS-based solar cells", Proc. SPIE 9749, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VII, 97491H (27 February 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2209327; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2209327
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