14 March 2016 Fabrication of two-dimensional visible wavelength nanoscale plasmonic structures using hydrogen silsesquioxane based resist
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Abstract
In recent years, the global market for biosensors has continued to increase in combination with their expanding use in areas such as biodefense/detection, home diagnostics, biometric identification, etc. A constant necessity for inexpensive, portable bio-sensing methods, while still remaining simple to understand and operate, is the motivation behind novel concepts and designs. Labeled visible spectrum bio-sensing systems provide instant feedback that is both simple and easy to work with, but are limited by the light intensity thresholds required by the imaging systems. In comparison, label-free bio-sensing systems and other detection modalities like electrochemical, frequency resonance, thermal change, etc., can require additional technical processing steps to convey the final result, increasing the system’s complexity and possibly the time required for analysis. Further decrease in the detection limit can be achieved through the addition of plasmonic structures into labeled bio-sensing systems. Nano-structures that operate in the visible spectrum have feature sizes typically in the order of the operating wavelength, calling for high aspect ratio nanoscale fabrication capabilities. In order to achieve these dimensions, electron beam lithography (EBL) is used due to its accurate feature production. Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) based electron beam resist is chosen for one of its benefits, which is after exposure to oxygen plasma, the patterned resist cures into silicon dioxide (SiO2). These cured features in conjunction with nanoscale gold particles help in producing a high electric field through dipole generation. In this work, a detailed process flow of the fabrication of square lattice of plasmonic structures comprising of gold coated silicon dioxide pillars designed to operate at 560 nm wavelength and produce an intensity increase of roughly 100 percent will be presented.
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Kyle Z. Smith, Akshitha Gadde, Anand Kadiyala, Jeremy M. Dawson, "Fabrication of two-dimensional visible wavelength nanoscale plasmonic structures using hydrogen silsesquioxane based resist", Proc. SPIE 9756, Photonic and Phononic Properties of Engineered Nanostructures VI, 975623 (14 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2213000; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213000
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