This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 9757, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction (if any), and Conference Committee listing.
In this presentation we emphasize that, within the variety of parameters usable for the design of HCGs, the transverse (vertical) symmetry properties of HCGs provide a power-full joystick for the dispersion engineering of guided mode resonances. We concentrate on asymmetric HCGs designed to accommodate guided mode resonances with ultra-flat zero-curvature dispersion characteristics (or photons with ultra-heavy effective mass), as well as with Dirac cone shaped linear dispersion characteristics. Examples of the great potential of this family of asymmetric HCGs will include the development of a platform for polaritonic devices and the production of micro-lasers particularly suited for hybrid III-V / silicon heterogeneous photonic integration, along CMOS compatible technological schemes.
The guided-mode resonance (GMR) concept refers to lateral quasi-guided waveguide modes induced in periodic layers. Whereas these effects have been known for a long time, new attributes and innovations continue to appear. Here, we review some recent progress in this field with emphasis on sparse, or minimal, device embodiments. We discuss properties of wideband resonant reflectors designed with gratings in which the grating ridges are matched to an identical material to eliminate local reflections and phase changes. This critical interface therefore possesses zero refractive-index contrast; hence we call them “zero-contrast gratings.” Applying this architecture, we present single-layer, wideband reflectors that are robust under experimentally realistic parametric variations. We introduce a new class of reflectors and polarizers fashioned with dielectric nanowire grids that are mostly empty space. Computed results predict high reflection and attendant polarization extinction for these sparse lattices. Experimental verification with Si nanowire grids yields ~200-nm-wide band of high reflection for one polarization state and free transmission of the orthogonal state. Finally, we present bandpass filters using all-dielectric resonant gratings. We design, fabricate, and test nanostructured single layer filters exhibiting high efficiency and sub-nanometer-wide passbands surrounded by 100-nm-wide stopbands.
High efficiency phase holograms are designed and implemented using aperiodic two-dimensional (2D) high-contrast gratings (HCGs). With our design algorithm and an in-house developed rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) package for periodic 2D HCGs, the structural parameters are obtained to achieve a full 360-degree phase-tuning range of the reflected or transmitted wave, while maintaining the power efficiency above 90%. For given far-field patterns or 3D objects to reconstruct, we can generate the near-field phase distribution through an iterative process. The aperiodic HCG phase plates we design for holograms are pixelated, and the local geometric parameters for each pixel to achieve desired phase alternation are extracted from our periodic HCG designs. Our aperiodic HCG holograms are simulated using the 3D finite-difference time-domain method. The simulation results confirm that the desired far-field patterns are successfully produced under illumination at the designed wavelength. The HCG holograms are implemented on the quartz wafers, using amorphous silicon as the high-index material. We propose HCG designs at both visible and infrared wavelengths, and our simulation confirms the reconstruction of 3D objects. The high-contrast gratings allow us to realize low-cost, compact, flat, and integrable holograms with sub-micrometer thicknesses.
With the increasing bandwidth demand of optical interconnects, directly modulated VCSELs with ultimate speed ratings are needed . For serial 100 Gbps solutions, today´s VCSELs have to increase their high-speed performance. Here we report about our next generation devices. The devices discussed here are an optimized version of our very successful high-speed, temperature-stable 980 nm VCSELs , and serve as reference-structure for high-contrast-grating high-speed VCSELs, which are in fabrication. Sharing the very short half-lambda cavity and a binary bottom-mirror with 32 pairs, levels are further optimized in order to minimize internal loss. Like previously, parasitics are controlled by two oxide apertures and highly conducting current-spreading layers. InGaAs MQW active layers with strain compensated GaAsP barriers were utilized for high differential gain. The 22 -pair Al12Ga88As/Al90Ga10As top-mirror was replaced by an 18-pair GaAs/Al90Ga10As mirror for lower photon lifetime, better confinement and better heat extraction. The epistructure was grown by IQE Europe. A similar structure with a high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror is in process. A detailed small-signal analysis is performed. The VCSELs showed modulation bandwidth around and exceeding 30 GHz. The measured data was fitted to single-mode and multi-mode rate-equation based models assuming selforganized carrier reservoirs formed by spatial hole burning. The common set of figures of merit is extended consistently to explain dynamic properties caused by carrier fluctuations. Mode control, which can ideally be performed by high-contrast-gratings, seems essential for next generation highspeed VCSEL devices.
Hybrid grating (HG) with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG), can provide a high reflectance close 100 % over a broader wavelength range than HCGs, or work as a ultrahigh quality (Q) factor resonator. The reflection and resonance properties of HGs have been investigated and the mechanisms leading to these properties are discussed. A HG reflector sample integrating a III-V cap layer with InGaAlAs quantum wells onto a Si grating has been fabricated and its reflection property has been characterized. The HG-based lasers have a promising prospect for silicon photonics light source or high-speed laser applications.
We designed and fabricated a two dimensional high contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirrors. The computer-aided software was employed to verify the structural parameters including grating periods and filling factors. From the optimized simulation results, the designed HCG structure has a wide reflection stopband (reflectivity (R) >90%) of over 200 nm, which centered at telecommunication wavelength. The optimized HCG mirrors were fabricated by electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma process technique. The experimental result was almost consistent with calculated data. This achievement should have an impact on numerous photonic devices helpful attribution to the integrated HCG VCSELs in the future.
Conventional High-index Contrast Gratings (HCG) consist of periodically distributed high refractive index stripes surrounded by low index media. Practically, such low/high index stack can be fabricated in several ways however low refractive index layers are electrical insulators of poor thermal conductivities. Monolithic High-index Contrast Gratings (MHCGs) overcome those limitations since they can be implemented in any material with a real refractive index larger than 1.75 without the need of the combination of low and high refractive index materials. The freedom of use of various materials allows to provide more efficient current injection and better heat flow through the mirror, in contrary to the conventional HCGs. MHCGs can simplify the construction of VCSELs, reducing their epitaxial design to monolithic wafer with carrier confinement and active region inside and etched stripes on both surfaces in post processing. We present numerical analysis of MHCGs using a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model. We investigate possible designs of MHCGs using multidimensional optimization of grating parameters for different refractive indices.
In this work, we have designed a novel Si based 1-dimensional high contrast meta-structure waveguide that has slow light effect as well as phase tunability using p-n junction. The goal is to use such waveguide to design active optical devices such as high frequency modulators and tunable filters for analog RF-photonics or data communication applications. The Si ridge waveguide has a pair of high contrast grating wings adhered to the waveguide core in the center. Grating bars at two sides of the waveguide are doped P and N-type respectively, while a p-n junction region is formed in the middle of the waveguide core. By applying a voltage to bias the p-n junction, one can sweep the free carriers to change the effective index of the waveguide as well as the dispersion property of the grating. This metastructure Si waveguide is ideal in the design of high frequency optical modulators since the slow light effect can reduce the modulator waveguide length, increase the modulation efficiency as well as compensate other nonlinearity factors of the modulator for analog applications.
We investigate slow light effect of subwavelength gratings via Rayleigh Anomaly on both infinite and finite size high index contrast gratings. Our results show that the local group velocity of the transmitted light can be significantly reduced due to the optical vortex, which can inspire a new mechanism to enhance light-matter interactions for optical sensing and photo detection. However, the slow light effect will diminish as the transmitted light propagates further away from the grating surface, and the slow-down factor decreases as the grating size shrinks.
In recent years, subwavelength dielectric gratings have been engineered for use as planar focusing elements at optical communication frequencies. Pioneering designs were based on aperiodic one-dimensional gratings, which were polarization-sensitive and designed bar by bar. In this paper, we present our recent designs which eliminated the polarization dependence by using a novel two-dimensional hexagonal lattice and algorithm to build the lens. In this way, lens can be designed algorithmically, with the inherent geometry requiring the use of only one period for the hexagonal lattice. We propose a unique geometry for designing two-dimensional grating lenses: dielectric posts arrayed in concentric circles. Because it is straightforward to space concentric rings apart at varying distances, we no longer need to restrict the design to a uniform grating period. By choosing two periodicities to work with, we managed to algorithmically design a two-dimensional lens, but with the advantage that our smallest feature sizes are up to twice as large as those of lenses designed with only one period. This increases the ease of fabrication for lenses working at current wavelengths and opens up the possibility for working with shorter wavelengths. Furthermore, this concentrically arrayed grating lens can be designed using phase information calculated for a periodic hexagonal lattice, even though the two designs show very little geometric resemblance. Also, we found that the grating lens is suitable not only for focusing plane waves, but also for imaging point sources. Finally, we show that bifocal lenses can be crated from diffraction gratings using our algorithm as well.
Optical biosensors with the high sensitivity is an important tool for environment monitoring, disease diagnosis and drug development. Integrating the biosensor could reduce the size and cost and is desirable for home and outdoor use. However, the integrated structure always results in the worsening of sensitivity and narrowing of sensing range, especially for small molecule sensing. In this work, we propose an integrated plasmonic biosensor based on the resonant structure composed of dielectric grating and metal film. With vertically incident light from the grating side, the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode could be excited at certain wavelength and the reflected light would vanish. Simulation results indicate that, when varying refractive index (ndet) of detection layer, the energy of reflected light changes dramatically. Assuming the resolution of the power meter is 0.01dB, the sensing resolution could be 4.37×10-6 RIU, which is very close to the bulk lens based SPP biosensor by monitoring the light intensity variation. Since antibody and antigen always have the size of tens of nanometers, it is necessary to check the sensing ability of the sensor in tens of nanometers. Fixing ndet and varying the thickness of detection layer, calculation result demonstrates that the reflected light energy is sensitive to the thickness change with one hundred nanometers. This attributes to the surface mode property of SPP mode.
Membranes made from silicon nitride have significantly higher mechanical Q-factors under tensile stress than those made of other dielectric materials. This makes them ideal candidates for membrane reflectors that provide high finesse in Fabry-Perot cavities or membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical systems. Building on our previous work with one-dimensional gratings on suspended membranes, we patterned two-dimensional photonic crystal gratings on monolithic, suspended membranes made from silicon nitride. These high-Q membranes exhibited high reflectivity, upwards of 99%, over several nanometers in the telecom band. To probe their optical response in a cavity environment, we used these membrane reflectors as the moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. We were able to realize cavities with a finesse of over 4,500.
The high-speed, high-efficient, compact phase modulator array is indispensable in the Optical-phased array (OPA) which has been considered as a promising technology for realizing flexible and efficient beam steering. In our research, two methods are presented to utilize high-contrast grating (HCG) as high-efficient phase modulator. One is that HCG possesses high-Q resonances that origins from the cancellation of leaky waves. As a result, sharp resonance peaks appear on the reflection spectrum thus HCGs can be utilized as efficient phase shifters. Another is that low-Q mode HCG is utilized as ultra-lightweight mirror. With MEMS technology, small HCG displacement (~50 nm) leads to large phase change (~1.7π). Effective beam steering is achieved in Connie Chang-Hasnian’s group. On the other hand, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the system design for silicon-based optical phased array, including the star coupler, phased array, emission elements and far-field patterns. Further, the non-uniform optical phased array is presented.
Photonic crystals manipulate photons in a manner analogous to solid-state crystals, and are composed of a dielectric material with a periodic refractive index distribution. In particular, two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs with high index contrasts (semiconductor/air) are promising for practical applications, owing to the strong optical confinement in simple, thin planar structures. This paper presents the recent progress on a silicon photonic-crystal slab as a technology platform in the terahertz-wave region, which is located between the radio and light wave regions (0.1–10 THz). Extremely low-loss (<0.1 dB/cm) terahertz waveguides based on the photonic-bandgap effect as well as dynamic control and modulation of a terahertz-wave transmission in a photonic-crystal slab by the effective interaction between photoexcited carriers and the terahertz-wave trapping due to the photonic band-edge effect are demonstrated. Terahertz photonic-crystal slabs hold the potential for developing ultralow-loss, compact terahertz components and integrated devices used in applications including wireless communication, spectroscopic sensing, and imaging.