14 March 2016 Beam-bending in spatially variant photonic crystals at telecommunications wavelengths
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This work reports the fabrication of micron-scale spatially variant photonic crystals (SVPCs) and their use for steering light beams through turns with bending radius Rbend on the order of ten times the optical wavelength λ0. Devices based on conventional photonic crystals, metamaterials, plasmonics and transformation optics have all been explored for controlling light beams and steering them through tight turns. These devices offer promise for photonic interconnects, but they are based on exotic materials, including metals, that make them impractically lossy or difficult to fabricate. Waveguides can also be used to steer light using total internal reflection; however, Rbend of a waveguide must be hundreds of times λ0 to guide light efficiently, which limits their use in optical circuits. SVPCs are spatially variant 3D lattices which can be created in transparent, low-refractive-index media and used to control the propagation of light through the self-collimation effect. SVPCs were fabricated by multi-photon lithography using the commercially available photo-polymer IP-DIP. The SVPCs were structurally and optically characterized and found to be capable of bending light having λ0 = 1.55 μm through a 90-degree turn with Rbend = 10 μm. Curved waveguides with Rbend = 15 μm and 35 μm were also fabricated using IP-DIP and optically characterized. The SVPCs were able to steer the light beams through tighter turns than either waveguide and with higher efficiency.
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Jennefir L. Digaum, Jennefir L. Digaum, Rashi Sharma, Rashi Sharma, Daniel Batista, Daniel Batista, Javier J. Pazos, Javier J. Pazos, Raymond C. Rumpf, Raymond C. Rumpf, Stephen M. Kuebler, Stephen M. Kuebler, } "Beam-bending in spatially variant photonic crystals at telecommunications wavelengths", Proc. SPIE 9759, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX, 975911 (14 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2213276; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213276

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