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14 March 2016 Design and fabrication of local fill fraction in photonic crystal templates using a spatial light modulator
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We report the fabrication of designed defects and regions in photonic crystal templates with differing filling fractions using a spatial light modulator. For the hexagonal lattice, phase patterns with local variance of diffraction efficiency are created using phase tiles from other phase patterns with known diffraction efficiencies. Six-fold symmetric phase patterns are used to generate six beams with locally specified phases. Fourier transform simulations of designed phase patterns are used to guide the filtering process and also give insight into the interference pattern in the 4f plane. Photonic crystal templates are fabricated using exposure of photoresist to the interference patterns generated from the phase patterns with local diffraction efficiency variance displayed on a spatial light modulator. It is shown that local control of filling fraction is achievable using this method. For the square lattice, line defects in polymer lattices are produced using line phase defects in a checkerboard phase pattern. The shifting of the lattice due to the defect phase is investigated. The shifting of lattice around the defects in 2+1 interference is less than that produced by 4+1 interference due to the alternative shifting in lattice in the 2+1 interference. By 45 degree defect orientation and 2+1 interference, the defect orientation can be aligned with the background lattice, the shifting is alternative in lattice, and the shifting is only in one side of the defects, in agreement with the theory prediction.
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Jeffrey Lutkenhaus, David George, David Lowell, Hualiang Zhang, and Yuankun Lin "Design and fabrication of local fill fraction in photonic crystal templates using a spatial light modulator ", Proc. SPIE 9759, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics IX, 97591M (14 March 2016);

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