13 February 2016 Multidimensional modulation formats for coherent optical communications
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Coherent optical communication systems applying modulation formats with a dimensionality of four or higher are investigated and compared to systems using conventional formats. Higher dimensionality can be achieved by applying modulation over more than one polarization, time-slot, wavelength, mode or core. Both uncoded systems and systems applying forward-error correction (FEC) coding are studied in terms of spectral efficiency and sensitivity. It is shown that increasing the dimensionality for a constant spectral efficiency improves the sensitivity substantially if no coding is applied, whereas the corresponding gains generally are much smaller in FEC-coded systems.
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Tobias A. Eriksson, Erik Agrell, Magnus Karlsson, "Multidimensional modulation formats for coherent optical communications", Proc. SPIE 9774, Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems V, 977403 (13 February 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2210827; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2210827

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