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24 March 2016 Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry
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The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples—mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software’s reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.
© (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
J. S. Villarrubia, V. N. Tondare, and A. E. Vladár "Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry", Proc. SPIE 9778, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXX, 977809 (24 March 2016);

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