The residual tensile and compressive stresses on wafers will result in concave and convex wafer shapes, respectively. This study investigates within-wafer CD uniformity (CDU) associated with wafer shape change induced by the 3D NAND flash memory processes. Within-wafer CDU was correlated with several critical parameters including different wafer bow heights of concave and convex wafer shapes, photo resists with different post exposure baking (PEB) temperature sensitivities, and DoseMapper compensation. The results indicated the trend of within-wafer CDU maintains flat for convex wafer shapes with bow height up to +230um and concave wafer shapes with bow height ranging from 0 ~ -70um, while the within-wafer CDU trends up from -70um to -246um wafer bow heights. To minimize the within-wafer CD distribution induced by wafer warpage, carefully tailoring the film stack and thermal budget in the process flow for maintaining the wafer shape at CDU friendly range is indispensable and using photo-resist materials with lower PEB temperature sensitivity is also suggested. In addition, DoseMapper compensation is also an alternative to greatly suppress the within-wafer CD non-uniformity but the photo-resist profile variation induced by across-wafer PEB temperature non-uniformity attributed to wafer warpage is uncorrectable, and the photo-resist profile variation is believed to affect across-wafer etch bias uniformity to some degree.
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Chi-hao Huang, Mars Yang, Elvis Yang, T. H. Yang, K. C. Chen, "Within-wafer CD variation induced by wafer shape," Proc. SPIE 9778, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXX, 97783E (8 March 2016);