8 March 2016 Within-wafer CD variation induced by wafer shape
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Abstract
In order to meet the increasing storage capacity demand and reduce bit cost of NAND flash memories, 3D stacked vertical flash cell array has been proposed. In constructing 3D NAND flash memories, the bit number per unit area is increased as increasing the number of stacked layers. However, the increased number of stacked layers has made the film stress control extremely important for maintaining good process quality. The residual film stress alters the wafer shape accordingly several process impacts have been readily observed across wafer, such as film deposition non-uniformity, etch rate non-uniformity, wafer chucking error on scanner, materials coating/baking defects, overlay degradation and critical dimension (CD) non-uniformity.

The residual tensile and compressive stresses on wafers will result in concave and convex wafer shapes, respectively. This study investigates within-wafer CD uniformity (CDU) associated with wafer shape change induced by the 3D NAND flash memory processes. Within-wafer CDU was correlated with several critical parameters including different wafer bow heights of concave and convex wafer shapes, photo resists with different post exposure baking (PEB) temperature sensitivities, and DoseMapper compensation. The results indicated the trend of within-wafer CDU maintains flat for convex wafer shapes with bow height up to +230um and concave wafer shapes with bow height ranging from 0 ~ -70um, while the within-wafer CDU trends up from -70um to -246um wafer bow heights. To minimize the within-wafer CD distribution induced by wafer warpage, carefully tailoring the film stack and thermal budget in the process flow for maintaining the wafer shape at CDU friendly range is indispensable and using photo-resist materials with lower PEB temperature sensitivity is also suggested. In addition, DoseMapper compensation is also an alternative to greatly suppress the within-wafer CD non-uniformity but the photo-resist profile variation induced by across-wafer PEB temperature non-uniformity attributed to wafer warpage is uncorrectable, and the photo-resist profile variation is believed to affect across-wafer etch bias uniformity to some degree.
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Chi-hao Huang, Chi-hao Huang, Mars Yang, Mars Yang, Elvis Yang, Elvis Yang, T. H. Yang, T. H. Yang, K. C. Chen, K. C. Chen, } "Within-wafer CD variation induced by wafer shape", Proc. SPIE 9778, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXX, 97783E (8 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2216048; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2216048
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