Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.
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Evgenii Sukhov, Thomas Muelders, Ulrich Klostermann, Weimin Gao, Mariya Braylovska, "SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns," Proc. SPIE 9780, Optical Microlithography XXIX, 97801O (15 March 2016);