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22 March 2016 Development of a realistic, dynamic digital brain phantom for CT perfusion validation
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Physicians rely on CT Perfusion (CTP) images and quantitative image data, including cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and bolus arrival delay, to diagnose and treat stroke patients. However, the quantification of these metrics may vary depending on the computational method used. Therefore, we have developed a dynamic and realistic digital brain phantom upon which CTP scans can be simulated based on a set of ground truth scenarios. Building upon the previously developed 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom containing a highly detailed brain model, this work consisted of expanding the intricate vasculature by semi-automatically segmenting existing MRA data and fitting nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces to the new vessels. Using time attenuation curves input by the user as reference, the contrast enhancement in the vessels changes dynamically. At each time point, the iodine concentration in the arteries and veins is calculated from the curves and the material composition of the blood changes to reflect the expected values. CatSim, a CT system simulator, generates simulated data sets of this dynamic digital phantom which can be further analyzed to validate CTP studies and post-processing methods. The development of this dynamic and realistic digital phantom provides a valuable resource with which current uncertainties and controversies surrounding the quantitative computations generated from CTP data can be examined and resolved.
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Sarah E. Divel, W. Paul Segars, Soren Christensen, Max Wintermark, Maarten G. Lansberg, and Norbert J. Pelc "Development of a realistic, dynamic digital brain phantom for CT perfusion validation", Proc. SPIE 9783, Medical Imaging 2016: Physics of Medical Imaging, 97830Y (22 March 2016);

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