22 March 2016 Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium
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Abstract
Active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant detector technology for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. For low dose imaging, electronic noise from the amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) array degrades imaging performance. We have fabricated the first prototype solid-state AMFPI using a uniform layer of avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor to amplify the signal to eliminate the effect of electronic noise. We have previously developed a large area solid-state avalanche a-Se sensor structure referred to as High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) capable of achieving gains of 75. In this work we successfully deposited this HARP structure onto a 24 x 30 cm2 TFT array with a pixel pitch of 85 μm. An electric field (ESe) up to 105 Vμm-1 was applied across the a-Se layer without breakdown. Using the HARP layer as a direct detector, an X-ray avalanche gain of 15 ± 3 was achieved at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. In indirect mode with a 150 μm thick structured CsI scintillator, an optical gain of 76 ± 5 was measured at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. Image quality at low dose increases with the avalanche gain until the electronic noise is overcome at a constant exposure level of 0.76 mR. We demonstrate the success of a solid-state HARP X-ray imager as well as the largest active area HARP sensor to date.
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James R. Scheuermann, Adrian Howansky, Amir H. Goldan, Olivier Tousignant, Sébastien Levéille, K. Tanioka, Wei Zhao, "Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium", Proc. SPIE 9783, Medical Imaging 2016: Physics of Medical Imaging, 978317 (22 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2217002; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2217002
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