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20 April 2016 A piezoelectric shear stress sensor
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In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress, suppressing effects of normal stress components, by applying opposite poling vectors to the piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces where it demonstrated high sensitivity to shear stress (91.3 ± 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT, d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also exhibited negligible sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is up to 800 Hz.
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Taeyang Kim, Aditya Saini, Jinwook Kim, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Yong Zhu, Frank L. Palmieri, Christopher J. Wohl, and Xiaoning Jiang "A piezoelectric shear stress sensor", Proc. SPIE 9803, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2016, 98032S (20 April 2016);

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