It has been shown that the negative electrode method has an important effect on the performance of the integrated PZT. The PZT displayed more susceptibility to cracking when copper tape was used than when direct bonding was used. The reliability of PZT in direct bonding depended on the adhesives used in bonding layers. Although a hard alumina–based adhesive can lead to cracking of the PZT, a high-temperature epoxy with adequate flexibility, such as Duralco 4538D, can provide the desired performance under target thermal cycling conditions. The RMSD parameter can characterize conductance signatures effectively. It also was demonstrated that RMSD can be used to quantify the fatigue of the PZT integration system, although RMSD is used primarily as a damage index in monitoring structural health.
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Hong Wang, Jy-An John Wang, Fei Ren, John Chan, "Smart patch integration development of compression connector structural health monitoring in overhead transmission lines," Proc. SPIE 9806, Smart Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation for Energy Systems 2016, 980606 (1 April 2016);