20 May 2016 Review of an assortment of IR materials-devices technologies used for imaging in spectral bands ranging from the visible to very long wavelengths
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Abstract
In this paper we review the intrinsic and extrinsic technological properties of the incumbent technology, InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP, for imaging in the visible- short wavelength spectral band, InSb and HgCdTe for imaging in the mid-wavelength spectral band and HgCdTe for imaging in the long wavelength spectral band. These material systems are in use for a wide range of applications addressing compelling needs in night vision imaging, low light level astronomical applications and defense strategic satellite sensing. These materials systems are direct band gap energy semiconductors hence the internal quantum efficiency η, is near unity over a wide spectral band pass. A key system figure of merit of a shot noise limited detector technology is given by the equation (1+Jdark. /Jphoton), where Jdark is the dark current density and Jphoton ~qηΦ is the photocurrent density; Φ is the photon flux incident on the detector and q is the electronic charge. The capability to maintain this factor for a specific spectral band close to unity for low illumination conditions and low temperature onset of non-ideal dark current components, basically intrinsic diffusion limited performance all the way, is a marker of quality and versatility of a semiconductor detector technology. It also enables the highest temperature of operation for tactical illumination conditions. A purpose of the work reported in this paper is to explore the focal plane array data sets of photodiode detector technologies widely used to bench mark their fundamental and technology properties and identify paths for improvements.
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Roger E. DeWames, Roger E. DeWames, } "Review of an assortment of IR materials-devices technologies used for imaging in spectral bands ranging from the visible to very long wavelengths", Proc. SPIE 9819, Infrared Technology and Applications XLII, 981924 (20 May 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2230550; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2230550
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