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3 May 2016 Integrated use of field spectroscopy and satellite remote sensing for defence and security applications in Cyprus
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Underground structures can affect their surrounding landscapes in different ways such as soil moisture content, soil composition and vegetation vigor. Vegetation vigor is often observed on the ground as a crop mark; a phenomenon which can be used as a proxy to denote the presence of underground and not visible structures. This paper presents the results obtained from field spectroradiometric campaigns at ‘buried’ underground structures in Cyprus. A SVC-1024 field spectroradiometer was used and in-band reflectances were determined for medium and high resolution satellite sensors, including Landsat. A number of vegetation indices such as NDVI were obtained while a ‘smart index’ was developed. The aim of the 'smart index' is to detect underground military structures by using existing vegetation indices or other in-band algorithms. In this study, test areas were identified, analyzed and modeled. The areas were analyzed and tested in different scenarios, including: (a) the ‘natural state’ of the underground structure (b) the different type of crop over the underground structure and imported soil (c) the different types of non-natural material over the underground structure. A reference target in the nearby area was selected as a baseline. Controllable meteorological and environmental parameters were acquired and monitored.
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George Melillos, Kyriacos Themistocleous, George Papadavid, Athos Agapiou, Silas Michaelides, Maria Prodromou, and Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis "Integrated use of field spectroscopy and satellite remote sensing for defence and security applications in Cyprus", Proc. SPIE 9823, Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XXI, 982316 (3 May 2016);

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