12 May 2016 Shooter position estimation with muzzle blast and shockwave measurements from separate locations
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Abstract
There are two acoustical events associated with small arms fire: the muzzle blast (created by bullets being expelled from the barrel of the weapon), and the shockwave (created by bullets which exceed the speed of sound). Assuming the ballistics of a round are known, the times and directions of arrival of the acoustic events furnish sufficient information to determine the origin of the shot. Existing methods tacitly assume that it is a single sensor which makes measurements of the times and direction of arrival. If the sensor is located past the point where the bullet goes transonic or if the sensor is far off the axis of the shot line a single sensor localization become highly inaccurate due to the ill-conditioning of the localization problem. In this paper, a more general approach is taken which allows for localizations from measurements made at separate locations. There are considerable advantages to this approach, the most noteworthy of which is the improvement in localization accuracy due to the improvement in the conditioning of the problem. Additional benefits include: the potential to locate in cases where a single sensor has insufficient information, furnishing high quality initialization to data fusion algorithms, and the potential to identify the round from a set of possible rounds.
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David Grasing, David Grasing, } "Shooter position estimation with muzzle blast and shockwave measurements from separate locations", Proc. SPIE 9825, Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security, Defense, and Law Enforcement Applications XV, 982504 (12 May 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2230595; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2230595
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