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17 May 2016 Modeling and analysis of LWIR signature variability associated with 3D and BRDF effects
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Algorithms for retrieval of surface reflectance, emissivity or temperature from a spectral image almost always assume uniform illumination across the scene and horizontal surfaces with Lambertian reflectance. When these algorithms are used to process real 3-D scenes, the retrieved “apparent” values contain the strong, spatially dependent variations in illumination as well as surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) effects. This is especially problematic with horizontal or near-horizontal viewing, where many observed surfaces are vertical, and where horizontal surfaces can show strong specularity. The goals of this study are to characterize long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) signature variability in a HSI 3-D scene and develop practical methods for estimating the true surface values. We take advantage of synthetic near-horizontal imagery generated with the high-fidelity MultiService Electro-optic Signature (MuSES) model, and compare retrievals of temperature and directional-hemispherical reflectance using standard sky downwelling illumination and MuSES-based non-uniform environmental illumination.
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Steven Adler-Golden, David Less, Xuemin Jin, and Peter Rynes "Modeling and analysis of LWIR signature variability associated with 3D and BRDF effects", Proc. SPIE 9840, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XXII, 98400P (17 May 2016);

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