The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Requirements, Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observations (RCA-EO) activity in the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) program to provide a structured approach to collect, store, maintain, and analyze user requirements and Earth observing system capabilities information. RCA-EO enables the collection of information on current key Earth observation products, services, and projects, and to evaluate them at different organizational levels within an agency, in terms of how reliant they are on Earth observation data from all sources, including spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based platforms. Within the USGS, RCA-EO has engaged over 500 subject matter experts in this assessment, and evaluated the impacts of more than 1000 different Earth observing data sources on 345 key USGS products and services. This paper summarizes Landsat impacts at various levels of the organizational structure of the USGS and highlights the feedback of the subject matter experts regarding Landsat data and Landsat-derived products. This feedback is expected to inform future Landsat mission decision making. The RCA-EO approach can be applied in a much broader scope to derive comprehensive knowledge of Earth observing system usage and impacts, to inform product and service development and remote sensing technology innovation beyond the USGS.