14 May 2016 Performance of several imaging methodologies in extraction of secondary SAR slow-time signals
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In Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) the resultant image gives not only the complex reflectivity of image points but also their interdependency with respect to time and observation angle. In range or fast-time changes in reflectivity are expectedly slight, however, in observation azimuth or slow-time the reflectivity pattern, movement or vibration of strong scatterers is revealed. These azimuth signals can subsequently reveal pass to pass changes over inter-pass time or observation elevation. Key to extracting the slow-time signals is the imaging method involved. If imaging preserves the phase function across azimuth then the time or aspect phenomenon riding on top of the phase can be extracted. In other cases the phase is distorted or overridden by imaging artifacts. The choice of imaging method is fundamental in determining not only image resolution but also the fidelity with which secondary signals along the aperture can be determined. The achievable envelope of secondary signal amplitude, bandwidth and resolution are determined here for several imaging methods including the fraction Fourier transform, deramping, range Doppler, chirp scaling, wave-front and matched filtering. Method of extracting these secondary azimuth dependent signals are developed and results are presented for an orbital scenario. Naturally sampling speed, pulse spacing and the flight path in slow-time enclose the largest potential envelope of measurable secondary signals while the selection of imaging method restricts the potential measurable signals to a smaller envelope. Sampling restrictions and bounds on range migration curvature for different imaging methods are also found.
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Matthew Pepin, Matthew Pepin, "Performance of several imaging methodologies in extraction of secondary SAR slow-time signals", Proc. SPIE 9843, Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery XXIII, 98430C (14 May 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2224356; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2224356


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