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26 May 2016 Recent progress in avalanche photodiodes for sensing in the IR spectrum
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Abstract—We report low-noise avalanche gain from photodiodes composed of a previously uncharacterized alloy, AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y, grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates. By varying the aluminum content the direct bandgap can be tuned from 0.25 eV (0% aluminum) to 1.24 eV (75% aluminum), corresponding to photon wavelengths from 5000 nm to 1000 nm, with the transition from direct-gap to indirect-gap occurring at ~1.18 eV (~72% aluminum), or 1050 nm. This has been used to fabricate separate absorption, charge, and multiplication (SACM) APDs using Al0.7In0.3As0.3Sb0.7 for the multiplication region and Al0.4In0.6As0.3Sb0.7 for the absorber. Gain values as high as 100 have been achieved and the excess noise factor is characterized by a k value of 0.01, which is comparable to or below that of Si. In addition, since the bandgap of the absorption region is direct, its absorption depth is 5 to 10 times shorter than indirect-bandgap silicon, potentially enabling significantly higher operating bandwidths.
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S. J. Maddox, M. Ren, M. E. Woodson, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell "Recent progress in avalanche photodiodes for sensing in the IR spectrum", Proc. SPIE 9854, Image Sensing Technologies: Materials, Devices, Systems, and Applications III, 985405 (26 May 2016);

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