A previous, cooperative study with the US FDA-DPA showed that individual manufacturers of naproxen could readily be differentiated by their stable-isotopic provenance (δ13C, δ18O, and δD; ref. 1). We suggest that MIE can be readily employed in the bio/pharmaceutical industry without alteration of present manufacturing processes other than isotopically selecting and/or monitoring reactants and products.
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J. P. Jasper, P. Farina, A. Pearson, P. S. Mezes, A. D. Sabatelli, "Molecular isotopic engineering (MIE): industrial manufacture of naproxen of predetermined stable carbon-isotopic compositions for authenticity and security protection and intellectual property considerations," Proc. SPIE 9863, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology XIII, 98630M (13 May 2016);