17 May 2016 A survey of unmanned ground vehicles with applications to agricultural and environmental sensing
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Unmanned ground vehicles have been utilized in the last few decades in an effort to increase the efficiency of agriculture, in particular, by reducing labor needs. Unmanned vehicles have been used for a variety of purposes including: soil sampling, irrigation management, precision spraying, mechanical weeding, and crop harvesting. In this paper, unmanned ground vehicles, implemented by researchers or commercial operations, are characterized through a comparison to other vehicles used in agriculture, namely airplanes and UAVs. An overview of different trade-offs of configurations, control schemes, and data collection technologies is provided. Emphasis is given to the use of unmanned ground vehicles in food crops, and includes a discussion of environmental impacts and economics. Factors considered regarding the future trends and potential issues of unmanned ground vehicles include development, management and performance. Also included is a strategy to demonstrate to farmers the safety and profitability of implementing the technology.
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Stephanie Bonadies, Stephanie Bonadies, Alan Lefcourt, Alan Lefcourt, S. Andrew Gadsden, S. Andrew Gadsden, } "A survey of unmanned ground vehicles with applications to agricultural and environmental sensing", Proc. SPIE 9866, Autonomous Air and Ground Sensing Systems for Agricultural Optimization and Phenotyping, 98660Q (17 May 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2224248; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2224248


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