19 May 2016 Quantum hyper-entanglement and angular spectrum decomposition applied to sensors
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Hyper-entanglement with an emphasis on mode type is used to extend a previously developed atmospheric imaging system. Angular spectrum expansions combined with second quantization formalism permits many different mode types to be considered using a common formalism. Fundamental Gaussian, standard Hermite-Gaussian, standard Laguerre- Gaussian, and Bessel modes are developed. Hyper-entanglement refers to entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time and orbital angular momentum. The system functions at optical or infrared frequencies. Only the signal photon propagates in the atmosphere, the ancilla photon is retained within the detector. This results in loss being essentially classical, giving rise to stronger forms of entanglement. A simple atomic physics based model of the scattering target is developed. This model permits the derivation in closed form of the loss coefficient for photons with a given mode type scattering from the target. Signal loss models for propagation, transmission, detection, and scattering are developed and applied. The probability of detection of photonic orbital angular momentum is considered in terms of random media theory. A model of generation and detection efficiencies for the different degrees of freedom is also considered. The implications of loss mechanisms for signal to noise ratio (SNR), and other quantum information theoretic quantities are discussed. Techniques for further enhancing the system’s SNR and resolution through adaptive optics are examined. The formalism permits random noise and entangled or nonentangled sources of interference to be modeled.
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James F. Smith, James F. Smith, } "Quantum hyper-entanglement and angular spectrum decomposition applied to sensors", Proc. SPIE 9873, Quantum Information and Computation IX, 98730M (19 May 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2222147; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2222147

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