18 April 2016 Band diagram of strained graphene nanoribbons
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The influence of ripple waves on the band diagram of zigzag strained graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is analyzed by utilizing the finite element method. Such waves have their origin in electromechanical effects. With a novel model, we demonstrate that electron-hole band diagrams of GNRs are highly influenced (i.e. level crossing of the bands are possible) by two combined effects: pseudo-magnetic fields originating from electroelasticity theory and external magnetic fields. In particular, we show that the level crossing point can be observed at large external magnetic fields (B ≈ 100T ) in strained GNRs, when the externally applied tensile edge stress is on the order of -100 eV/nm and the amplitude of the out-of-plane ripple waves is on the order of 1nm.
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Sanjay Prabhakar, Sanjay Prabhakar, Roderick Melnik, Roderick Melnik, Luis Bonilla, Luis Bonilla, "Band diagram of strained graphene nanoribbons", Proc. SPIE 9884, Nanophotonics VI, 98840I (18 April 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2227973; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2227973

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