18 April 2016 Improved nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguide: a full study
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We present a full study of an improved nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguides (NPSWs) in which buffer linear dielectric layers are added between the Kerr type nonlinear dielectric core and the two semi-infinite metal regions. Our approach computes the stationary solutions using the fixed power algorithm, in which for a given structure the wave power is an input parameter and the outputs are the propagation constant and the corresponding field components. For TM polarized waves, the inclusion of these supplementary layers have two consequences. First, they reduced the overall losses. Secondly, they modify the types of solutions that propagate in the NPSWs adding new profiles enlarging the possibilities offered by these nonlinear waveguides. In addition to the symmetric linear plasmonic profile obtained in the simple plasmonic structure with linear core such that its effective index is above the linear core refractive index, we obtained a new field profile which is more localized in the core with an effective index below the core linear refractive index. In the nonlinear case, if the effective index of the symmetric linear mode is above the core linear refractive index, the mode field profiles now exhibit a spatial transition from a plasmonic type profile to a solitonic type one. Our structure also provides longer propagation length due to the decrease of the losses compared to the simple nonlinear slot waveguide and exhibits, for well-chosen refractive index or thickness of the buffer layer, a spatial transition of its main modes that can be controlled by the power. We provide a full phase diagram of the TM wave operating regimes of these improved NPSWs. The stability of the main TM modes is then demonstrated numerically using the FDTD. We also demonstrate the existence of TE waves for both linear and nonlinear cases (for some configurations) in which the maximum intensity is located in the middle of the waveguide. We indicate the bifurcation of the nonlinear asymmetric TE mode from the symmetric nonlinear one through the Hopf bifurcation. This kind of bifurcation is similar to the ones already obtained in TM case for our improved structure, and also for the simple NPSWs. At high power, above the bifurcation threshold, the fundamental symmetric nonlinear TE mode moves gradually to new nonlinear mode in which the soliton peak displays two peaks in the core. The losses of the TE modes decrease with the power for all the cases. This kind of structures could be fabricated and characterized experimentally due to the realistic parameters chosen to model them.
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Mahmoud M. R. Elsawy, Virginie Nazabal, Mathieu Chauvet, Gilles Renversez, "Improved nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguide: a full study", Proc. SPIE 9884, Nanophotonics VI, 98840J (18 April 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2227522; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2227522

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