27 April 2016 Wafer-level fabrication of arrays of glass lens doublets
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Abstract
Systems for imaging require to employ high quality optical components in order to dispose of optical aberrations and thus reach sufficient resolution. However, well-known methods to get rid of optical aberrations, such as aspherical profiles or diffractive corrections are not easy to apply to micro-optics. In particular, some of these methods rely on polymers which cannot be associated when such lenses are to be used in integrated devices requiring high temperature process for their further assembly and separation. Among the different approaches, the most common is the lens splitting that consists in dividing the focusing power between two or more optical components. In here, we propose to take advantage of a wafer-level technique, devoted to the generation of glass lenses, which involves thermal reflow in silicon cavities to generate lens doublets. After the convex lens sides are generated, grinding and polishing of both stack sides allow, on the first hand, to form the planar lens backside and, on the other hand, to open the silicon cavity. Nevertheless, silicon frames are then kept and thinned down to form well-controlled and auto-aligned spacers between the lenses. Subsequent accurate vertical assembly of the glass lens arrays is performed by anodic bonding. The latter ensures a high level of alignment both laterally and axially since no additional material is required. Thanks to polishing, the generated lens doublets are then as thin as several hundreds of microns and compatible with micro-opto-electro-systems (MOEMS) technologies since they are only made of glass and silicon. The generated optical module is then robust and provide improved optical performances. Indeed, theoretically, two stacked lenses with similar features and spherical profiles can be almost diffraction limited whereas a single lens characterized by the same numerical aperture than the doublet presents five times higher wavefront error. To demonstrate such assumption, we fabricated glass lens doublets and compared them to single lenses of equivalent focusing power. For similar illumination, the optical aberrations are significantly reduced.
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Nicolas Passilly, Stéphane Perrin, Jorge Albero, Johann Krauter, Olivier Gaiffe, Ludovic Gauthier-Manuel, Luc Froehly, Justine Lullin, Sylwester Bargiel, Wolfgang Osten, Christophe Gorecki, "Wafer-level fabrication of arrays of glass lens doublets", Proc. SPIE 9888, Micro-Optics 2016, 98880T (27 April 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2228833; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2228833
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