28 April 2016 VCSELs with optically controlled current confinement: experiments and analysis
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We have devised a novel oxide-free and regrowth-free approach for optically controlled current confinement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This is realized with a monolithically integrated phototransistor (PT), which is configured as an optical switch and embedded between the two Bragg reflectors. We have fabricated functional PT-VCSELs by one-step epitaxial growth plus metal deposition with different top contact sizes. We present light–current–voltage characteristics of the lasers as well as a simple theoretical model explaining the occurrence of a distinct turn-on point and clarify epitaxial design requirements to reach strong optically controlled current confinement.
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Sven Bader, Sven Bader, Philipp Gerlach, Philipp Gerlach, Rainer Michalzik, Rainer Michalzik, "VCSELs with optically controlled current confinement: experiments and analysis", Proc. SPIE 9892, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics VII, 989208 (28 April 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2228090; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2228090

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