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27 April 2016 Non-linear excitation of atoms by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses
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The development of methods of generation of ultrashort pulses (USP) of femto- and attosecond duration ranges with controlled parameters necessitates the theoretical study of features of their interaction with a matter [1]. Among such features that do not exist in case of “long” pulses should first of all be the nonlinear dependence of the photoprocess probability W on the USP duration (τ) [2] as well as the dependence on the carrier phase with respect to the pulse envelope (φ) [3-4]. It should be noted that if the dependence of the probability W on the phase φ manifests itself either only for very short pulses, when ωτ < 1 (ω is carrier frequency of the pulse), or in case of a nonlinear photoprocess [3], the function W(τ) can differ from a linear function in the limit ωτ> 1 too for fields of moderate strength, when the perturbation theory is applicable [2].
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Valery A. Astapenko and Sergey V. Sakhno "Non-linear excitation of atoms by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses", Proc. SPIE 9894, Nonlinear Optics and its Applications IV, 98941D (27 April 2016);

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