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29 April 2016 3D real-time visualization of blood flow in cerebral aneurysms by light field particle image velocimetry
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Cerebral aneurysms require endovascular treatment to eliminate potentially lethal hemorrhagic rupture by hemostasis of blood flow within the aneurysm. Devices (e.g. coils and flow diverters) promote homeostasis, however, measurement of blood flow within an aneurysm or cerebral vessel before and after device placement on a microscopic level has not been possible so far. This would allow better individualized treatment planning and improve manufacture design of devices. For experimental analysis, direct measurement of real-time microscopic cerebrovascular flow in micro-structures may be an alternative to computed flow simulations. An application of microscopic aneurysm flow measurement on a regular basis to empirically assess a high number of different anatomic shapes and the corresponding effect of different devices would require a fast and reliable method at low cost with high throughout assessment. Transparent three dimensional 3D models of brain vessels and aneurysms may be used for microscopic flow measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV), however, up to now the size of structures has set the limits for conventional 3D-imaging camera set-ups. On line flow assessment requires additional computational power to cope with the processing large amounts of data generated by sequences of multi-view stereo images, e.g. generated by a light field camera capturing the 3D information by plenoptic imaging of complex flow processes. Recently, a fast and low cost workflow for producing patient specific three dimensional models of cerebral arteries has been established by stereo-lithographic (SLA) 3D printing. These 3D arterial models are transparent an exhibit a replication precision within a submillimeter range required for accurate flow measurements under physiological conditions. We therefore test the feasibility of microscopic flow measurements by PIV analysis using a plenoptic camera system capturing light field image sequences. Averaging across a sequence of single double or triple shots of flashed images enables reconstruction of the real-time corpuscular flow through the vessel system before and after device placement. This approach could enable 3D-insight of microscopic flow within blood vessels and aneurysms at submillimeter resolution. We present an approach that allows real-time assessment of 3D particle flow by high-speed light field image analysis including a solution that addresses high computational load by image processing. The imaging set-up accomplishes fast and reliable PIV analysis in transparent 3D models of brain aneurysms at low cost. High throughput microscopic flow assessment of different shapes of brain aneurysms may therefore be possibly required for patient specific device designs.
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Matthias F. Carlsohn, André Kemmling, Arne Petersen, and Lennart Wietzke "3D real-time visualization of blood flow in cerebral aneurysms by light field particle image velocimetry", Proc. SPIE 9897, Real-Time Image and Video Processing 2016, 989703 (29 April 2016);

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