1 August 2016 A broadband x-ray imaging spectroscopy with high-angular resolution: the FORCE mission
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Abstract
We are proposing FORCE (Focusing On Relativistic universe and Cosmic Evolution) as a future Japan-lead Xray observatory to be launched in the mid 2020s. Hitomi (ASTRO-H) possesses a suite of sensitive instruments enabling the highest energy-resolution spectroscopy in soft X-ray band, a broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy in soft and hard X-ray bands, and further high energy coverage up to soft gamma-ray band. FORCE is the direct successor to the broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy aspect of Hitomi (ASTRO-H) with significantly higher angular resolution. The current design of FORCE defines energy band pass of 1-80 keV with angular resolution of < 15 in half-power diameter, achieving a 10 times higher sensitivity above 10 keV compared to any previous missions with simultaneous soft X-ray coverage. Our primary scientific objective is to trace the cosmic formation history by searching for "missing black holes" in various mass-scales: "buried supermassive black holes (SMBHs)" (> 104 M) residing in the center of galaxies in a cosmological distance, "intermediate-mass black holes" (102–104 M) acting as the possible seeds from which SMBHs grow, and "orphan stellar-mass black holes" (< 102 M) without companion in our Galaxy. In addition to these missing BHs, hunting for the nature of relativistic particles at various astrophysical shocks is also in our scope, utilizing the broadband X-ray coverage with high angular-resolution. FORCE are going to open a new era in these fields. The satellite is proposed to be launched with the Epsilon vehicle that is a Japanese current solid-fuel rocket. FORCE carries three identical pairs of Super-mirror and wide-band X-ray detector. The focal length is currently planned to be 10 m. The silicon mirror with multi-layer coating is our primary choice to achieve lightweight, good angular optics. The detector is a descendant of hard X-ray imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) replacing its silicon strip detector with SOI-CMOS silicon pixel detector, allowing an extension of the low energy threshold down to 1 keV or even less.
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Koji Mori, Koji Mori, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yoshihiro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Takashi Okajima, Takashi Okajima, Hiroshi Murakami, Hiroshi Murakami, Hisamitsu Awaki, Hisamitsu Awaki, Hironori Matsumoto, Hironori Matsumoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Yasushi Fukazawa, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, William W. Zhang, William W. Zhang, } "A broadband x-ray imaging spectroscopy with high-angular resolution: the FORCE mission", Proc. SPIE 9905, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 99051O (1 August 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2231262; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2231262
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