11 July 2016 Design and on-orbit operation of the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator on the Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument
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Abstract
The Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Astro-H observatory contains a 6x6 array of x-ray microcalorimeters, which is cooled to 50 mK by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR consists of three stages in order to provide stable detector cooling using either a 1.2 K superfluid helium bath or a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler as its heat sink. When liquid helium is present, two of the ADR’s stages are used to single-shot cool the detectors while rejecting heat to the helium. After the helium is depleted, all three stages are used to cool both the helium tank (to about 1.5 K) and the detectors (to 50 mK) using the JT cryocooler as its heat sink. The Astro-H observatory, renamed Hitomi after its successful launch in February 2016, carried approximately 36 liters of helium into orbit. On day 5, the helium had cooled sufficiently (<1.4 K) to allow operation of the ADR. This paper describes the design, operation and on-orbit performance of the ADR.
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Peter J. Shirron, Peter J. Shirron, Mark O. Kimball, Mark O. Kimball, Bryan L. James, Bryan L. James, Theodore Muench, Theodore Muench, Edgar R. Canavan, Edgar R. Canavan, Michael J. DiPirro, Michael J. DiPirro, Thomas G. Bialas, Thomas G. Bialas, Gary A. Sneiderman, Gary A. Sneiderman, Kevin R. Boyce, Kevin R. Boyce, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Frederick S. Porter, Frederick S. Porter, Richard L. Kelley, Richard L. Kelley, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yoh Takei, Yoh Takei, Seiji Yoshida, Seiji Yoshida, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, } "Design and on-orbit operation of the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator on the Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument", Proc. SPIE 9905, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 99053O (11 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2231301; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2231301
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