26 July 2016 In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer
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The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre- flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.
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Maurice A. Leutenegger, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Marc Audard, Marc Audard, Kevin R. Boyce, Kevin R. Boyce, Gregory V. Brown, Gregory V. Brown, Meng P. Chiao, Meng P. Chiao, Megan E. Eckart, Megan E. Eckart, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Akihiro Furuzawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Matteo Guainazzi, Matteo Guainazzi, Daniel Haas, Daniel Haas, Jan-Willem den Herder, Jan-Willem den Herder, Takayuki Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Ryo Iizuka, Ryo Iizuka, Manabu Ishida, Manabu Ishida, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Richard L. Kelley, Richard L. Kelley, Naomichi Kikuchi, Naomichi Kikuchi, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Shu Koyama, Shu Koyama, Sho Kurashima, Sho Kurashima, Yoshitomo Maeda, Yoshitomo Maeda, Maxim Markevitch, Maxim Markevitch, Dan McCammon, Dan McCammon, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Hideyuki Mori, Hideyuki Mori, Nozomi Nakaniwa, Nozomi Nakaniwa, Takashi Okajima, Takashi Okajima, Stéphane Paltani, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Robert Petre, F. Scott Porter, F. Scott Porter, Kosuke Sato, Kosuke Sato, Toshiki Sato, Toshiki Sato, Makoto Sawada, Makoto Sawada, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Hiromi Seta, Gary Sneiderman, Gary Sneiderman, Yang Soong, Yang Soong, Satoshi Sugita, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew E. Szymkowiak, Andrew E. Szymkowiak, Yoh Takei, Yoh Takei, Makoto Tashiro, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yuzuru Tawara, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Cor P. de Vries, Cor P. de Vries, Tomomi Watanabe, Tomomi Watanabe, Shinya Yamada, Shinya Yamada, Noriko Yamasaki, Noriko Yamasaki, "In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer", Proc. SPIE 9905, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 99053U (26 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2234230; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2234230

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