9 August 2016 Upgraded cameras for the HESS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes
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Abstract
The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of five imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, sensitive to cosmic gamma rays of energies between ~30 GeV and several tens of TeV. Four of them started operations in 2003 and their photomultiplier tube (PMT) cameras are currently undergoing a major upgrade, with the goals of improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the failure rate of the ageing systems. With the exception of the 960 PMTs, all components inside the camera have been replaced: these include the readout and trigger electronics, the power, ventilation and pneumatic systems and the control and data acquisition software. New designs and technical solutions have been introduced: the readout makes use of the NECTAr analog memory chip, which samples and stores the PMT signals and was developed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The control of all hardware subsystems is carried out by an FPGA coupled to an embedded ARM computer, a modular design which has proven to be very fast and reliable. The new camera software is based on modern C++ libraries such as Apache Thrift, ØMQ and Protocol buffers, offering very good performance, robustness, flexibility and ease of development. The first camera was upgraded in 2015, the other three cameras are foreseen to follow in fall 2016. We describe the design, the performance, the results of the tests and the lessons learned from the first upgraded H.E.S.S. camera.
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Gianluca Giavitto, Gianluca Giavitto, Terry Ashton, Terry Ashton, Arnim Balzer, Arnim Balzer, David Berge, David Berge, Francois Brun, Francois Brun, Thomas Chaminade, Thomas Chaminade, Eric Delagnes, Eric Delagnes, Gérard Fontaine, Gérard Fontaine, Matthias Füßling, Matthias Füßling, Berrie Giebels, Berrie Giebels, Jean-François Glicenstein, Jean-François Glicenstein, Tobias Gräber, Tobias Gräber, James Hinton, James Hinton, Albert Jahnke, Albert Jahnke, Stefan Klepser, Stefan Klepser, Marko Kossatz, Marko Kossatz, Axel Kretzschmann, Axel Kretzschmann, Valentin Lefranc, Valentin Lefranc, Holger Leich, Holger Leich, Hartmut Lüdecke, Hartmut Lüdecke, Iryna Lypova, Iryna Lypova, Pascal Manigot, Pascal Manigot, Vincent Marandon, Vincent Marandon, Emmanuel Moulin, Emmanuel Moulin, Mathieu de Naurois, Mathieu de Naurois, Patrick Nayman, Patrick Nayman, Marek Penno, Marek Penno, Duncan Ross, Duncan Ross, David Salek, David Salek, Markus Schade, Markus Schade, Thomas Schwab, Thomas Schwab, Rachel Simoni, Rachel Simoni, Christian Stegmann, Christian Stegmann, Constantin Steppa, Constantin Steppa, Julian Thornhill, Julian Thornhill, François Toussnel, François Toussnel, } "Upgraded cameras for the HESS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes", Proc. SPIE 9908, Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, 99082H (9 August 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2231865; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2231865
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