9 August 2016 High sensitivity, wide coverage, and high-resolution NIR non-cryogenic spectrograph, WINERED
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Abstract
Near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectroscopy is a fundamental observational method in astronomy. It provides significant information on the kinematics, the magnetic fields, and the chemical abundances, of astronomical objects embedded in or behind the highly extinctive clouds or at the cosmological distances. Scientific requirements have accelerated the development of the technology required for NIR high resolution spectrographs using 10 m telescopes. WINERED is a near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectrograph that is currently mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope of the Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Kyoto-Sangyo University, Japan, and has been successfully operated for three years. It covers a wide wavelength range from 0.90 to 1.35 μm (the z-, Y-, and J-bands) with a spectral resolution of R = 28,000 (Wide-mode) and R = 80,000 (Hires-Y and Hires-J modes). WINERED has three distinctive features: (i) optics with no cold stop, (ii) wide spectral coverage, and (iii) high sensitivity. The first feature, originating from the Joyce proposal, was first achieved by WINERED, with a short cutoff infrared array, cold baffles, and custom-made thermal blocking filters, and resulted in reducing the time for development, alignment, and maintenance, as well as the total cost. The second feature is realized with the spectral coverage of Δλ/λ~1/6 in a single exposure. This wide coverage is realized by a combination of a decent optical design with a cross-dispersed echelle and a large format array (2k x 2k HAWAII- 2RG). The Third feature, high sensitivity, is achieved via the high-throughput optics (>60 %) and the very low noise of the system. The major factors affecting the high throughput are the echelle grating and the VPH cross-disperser with high diffraction efficiencies of ~83 % and ~86 %, respectively, and the high QE of HAWAII-2RG (83 % at 1.23 μm). The readout noise of the electronics and the ambient thermal background radiation at longer wavelengths could be major noise sources. The readout noise is 5.3 e- for NDR = 32, and the ambient thermal background is significantly reduced to ~ 0.05 e- pix-1 sec-1 at 273 K. As a result, the limiting magnitudes of WINERED are estimated to be mJ = 13.8 mag for the 1.3 m telescope, mJ = 16.9 mag for the 3.6 m telescope, and mJ = 19.2 mag for 10 m telescope with adoptive optics, respectively. Finally, we introduce some scientific highlights provided by WINERED for both emission and absorption line objects in the fields of stars, the interstellar medium, and the solar system.
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Yuji Ikeda, Yuji Ikeda, Naoto Kobayashi, Naoto Kobayashi, Sohei Kondo, Sohei Kondo, Shogo Otsubo, Shogo Otsubo, Satoshi Hamano, Satoshi Hamano, Hiroaki Sameshima, Hiroaki Sameshima, Tomoshiro Yoshikawa, Tomoshiro Yoshikawa, Kei Fukue, Kei Fukue, Kenshi Nakanishi, Kenshi Nakanishi, Takafumi Kawanishi, Takafumi Kawanishi, Tetsuya Nakaoka, Tetsuya Nakaoka, Masaomi Kinoshita, Masaomi Kinoshita, Ayaka Kitano, Ayaka Kitano, Akira Asano, Akira Asano, Keiichi Takenaka, Keiichi Takenaka, Ayaka Watase, Ayaka Watase, Hiroyuki Mito, Hiroyuki Mito, Chikako Yasui, Chikako Yasui, Atsushi Minami, Atsushi Minami, Natsuko Izumu, Natsuko Izumu, Ryo Yamamoto, Ryo Yamamoto, Misaki Mizumoto, Misaki Mizumoto, Takayuki Arasaki, Takayuki Arasaki, Akira Arai, Akira Arai, Noriyuki Matsunaga, Noriyuki Matsunaga, Hideyo Kawakita, Hideyo Kawakita, } "High sensitivity, wide coverage, and high-resolution NIR non-cryogenic spectrograph, WINERED", Proc. SPIE 9908, Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, 99085Z (9 August 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2230886; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2230886
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