The Root-Sum-Squared, or "RSS" wavefront error model is a simple, scalar tool, commonly used for space telescope error budgeting. At the same time, much more detailed models, combining ray-trace and Fourier optics with optical alignments and wavefront controls, can provide accurate, high-resolution simulations for detailed system and subsystem design. This paper makes a connection between the two modeling approaches by deriving RSS model coefficients from ray-trace models, including the effects of wavefront controls, for computing system performance from component error statistics. It is shown that, properly constructed, the simple RSS error budget is a covariance analysis, and can be as accurate as high-resolution wavefront models for statistical wavefront error prediction. A notional segmented-aperture space telescope is used to illustrate this error modeling process.