27 September 2016 Study of the formation of native oxide on copper at room temperature
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Native oxide grown on copper has been a nuisance in electrical devices due to extra electrical resistance added to copper electrodes. However, copper oxide, known to have two primary stable phases, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and cupric oxide (CuO), is a material worth investigating for electronic applications. These two phases exhibiting distinctive electrical characteristics, would make copper oxide a prospective material for resistive switches. Cu2O and CuO often form concurrently within the native oxide. Because of their similar refractive index and extinction coefficient, optically differentiating these two phases is a challenge, yet it is critical for designing devices. In this study, thin copper films were deposited using electron-beam evaporation and sputtering. A native oxide was grown on the prepared copper films over 250 days in air and periodically evaluated with reflectometry-ellipsometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was also performed on the samples aged for 7 months to obtain their chemical characteristics. A comprehensive analysis on the progressive formation of native oxide on copper is discussed.
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Juan J. Díaz León, Juan J. Díaz León, David M. Fryauf, David M. Fryauf, Robert D. Cormia, Robert D. Cormia, Nobuhiko P. Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. Kobayashi, } "Study of the formation of native oxide on copper at room temperature", Proc. SPIE 9924, Low-Dimensional Materials and Devices 2016, 99240O (27 September 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2238745; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2238745

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