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26 September 2016 On gain in homogenized composite materials
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Three theoretical studies were undertaken, each based on the Bruggeman homogenization formalism and each involving homogenized composite materials (HCMs) comprising active component materials. It was found that: (i) HCMs can exhibit higher degrees of amplification than are exhibited by the HCM’s component materials; (ii) anisotropic HCMs can simultaneously exhibit plane-wave amplification for certain propagation directions and plane-wave attenuation for other propagation directions; and (iii) for isotropic chiral HCMs, left-circularly polarized fields may be amplified while right-circularly polarized fields may be simultaneously attenuated (or vice versa) in any propagation direction.
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Tom G. Mackay and Akhlesh Lakhtakia "On gain in homogenized composite materials", Proc. SPIE 9929, Nanostructured Thin Films IX, 99290M (26 September 2016);

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