This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 9936, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction (if any), and Conference Committee listing.
We report the synthesis of ultra-high aspect ratio copper nanowires (CuNW) and fabrication of CuNW-based transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) with high optical transmittance (>80%) and excellent sheet resistance (Rs <30 Ω/sq). These CuNW TCEs are subsequently hybridized with aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin-film coatings, or platinum thin film coatings, or nickel thin-film coatings. Our hybrid transparent electrodes can replace indium tin oxide (ITO) films in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as either anodes or cathodes. We highlight the challenges of integrating bare CuNWs into DSSCs, and demonstrate that hybridization renders the solar cell integrations feasible. The CuNW/AZO-based DSSCs have reasonably good open-circuit voltage (Voc = 720 mV) and short-circuit current-density (Jsc = 0.96 mA/cm2), which are comparable to what is obtained with an ITO-based DSSC fabricated with a similar process. Our CuNW-Ni based DSSCs exhibit a good open-circuit voltage (Voc = 782 mV) and a decent short-circuit current (Jsc = 3.96 mA/cm2), with roughly 1.5% optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency.
Thin films of Cu2GeS3 are grown by annealing copper layers in GeS and S gaseous atmosphere above 460°C. Below 500°C the cubic polymorph is formed, having inferior optoelectronic properties compared to the monoclinic phase, formed at higher temperature. The bandgap of the cubic phase lies below that of the monoclinic phase: they are determined from absorption measurements to be 1.23 and 1.55 eV respectively. Photoluminescence measurements are performed and only the monoclinic Cu2GeS3 shows a photoluminescence signal with a peak maximum at 1.57 eV. We attribute this difference between cubic and monoclinic to the higher quasi fermi level splitting of the monoclinic phase. Wavelength dependent photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrate the Cu2GeS3 to be p-type with an apparent quantum efficiency of less than 3 % above the band gap.
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells are one of the most exciting technologies in the renewable energy field, resulting in over 20% power conversion efficiency. Deep understanding of the working principle is now required to turn the high efficiency solar cells into a reliable technology. In this work we have explored the role of deposition method on the crystallinity of perovskite films and its influence on the hysteresis behavior of the current-voltage characteristics. In addition Nb2O5 was used as hole blocking layer and its influence is also discussed. We have found that hysteresis is strongly dependent on both; perovskite deposition method and Nb2O5 thickness. The ideal condition where the hysteresis is suppressed or minimized was achieved by using the sequential deposition method for the perovskite semiconductor and a hole blocking layer of 50 nm.
Design and simulation of a novel pressure microgripper based on Microelectromechanical, MEM technology, and composed by several electrothermal microactuators were carried out in order to increment the displacement and the cutoff force. The implementation of an element of press or gripping in the arrow of chevron actuator was implemented to supply stability in the manipulation of micro-objects. Each device of the microgripper and its fundamental equations will be described. The fundamental parameters to understand the operation and behaviour of the device are analyzed through sweeps of temperature (from 30 °C up to 100 °C) and voltage (from 0.25 V up to 5 V), showing the feasibility to operate the microgripper with electrical or thermal feeding. The design and simulation were development with Finite Element Method (FEM) in Ansys-Workbench 16.0. In this work, the fundamental parameters were calculated in Ansys-Workbench. It is shown, that structural modifications have great impact in the displacement and the cut-off force of the microgripper.
Recent reports indicate that thin films of oxides of zinc: ZnO, Zn(O,S), or Zn-Mg-O, could be a better buffer component than CdS to provide an adequate band alignment with orthorhombic tin sulphide in thin lm solar cells. Thin films of ZnO were grown by rf-magnetron sputtering on different substrates at room temperature. Thin films of ZnO obtained by different deposition methods show hexagonal crystal structure, usually with a preferential orientation of (002) crystallographic planes parallel to the substrate surface. However, in the present study XRD patterns indicate that thicker ZnO films on glass substrates have preferential growth of (103) planes, while that on chemically deposited CdS or ZnS films preferential orientation of (002) planes persists. Bandgap of ZnO films increases from 3.2 eV to 3.4 eV when the chamber pressure used for deposition varies from 2.3 mTorr to 6 mTorr. ZnO films were incorporated in a solar cell structure stainless steel/SnS(cubic)/SnS(orthorhombic)/SnS(cubic)/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al. It showed open-circuit voltage of 0.318 V, short-circuit current density of 3.6 mA/cm2 and conversion efficiency of 0.82%.