Small molecular organic semiconductor crystals form interesting electronic systems of periodically arranged “charge clouds” whose mutual electronic coupling determines whether or not electronic states can be coherent over fluctuating molecules. This presentation focuses on two methods to reduce molecular fluctuation, which strongly restricts mobility of highly mobile charge in single-crystal organic transistors.
The first example is to apply external hydrostatic pressure. Using Hall-effect measurement for pentacene FETs, which tells us the extent of the electronic coherence, we found a crossover from hopping-like transport of nearly localized charge to band transport of delocalized charge with full coherence. As the result of temperature dependence measurement, it turned out that reduced molecular fluctuation is mainly responsible for the crossover.
The second is to apply uniaxial strain to single-crystal organic FETs. We applied stain by bending thin films of newly synthesized decyldinaphthobenzodithiophene (C10-DNBDT) on plastic substrate so that 3% strain is uniaxially applied. As the result, the room-temperature mobility increased by the factor of 1.7. In-depth analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the origin to be the suppression of the thermal fluctuation of the individual molecules, which is confirmed by temperature dependent measurements. Our findings show that compressing the crystal structure directly restricts the vibration of the molecules, thus suppressing dynamic disorder, a unique mechanism in organic semiconductors. Since strain can easily be induced during the fabrication process, these findings can directly be exploited to build high performance organic devices.