The BEaTriX (Beam Expander Testing X-ray facility) project is an X-ray apparatus under construction at INAF/OAB to
generate a broad (200´60 mm2), uniform and low-divergent X-ray beam within a small lab (6´15 m2). BEaTriX will
consist of an X-ray source in the focus a grazing incidence paraboloidal mirror to obtain a parallel beam, followed by a
crystal monochromation system and by an asymmetrically-cut diffracting crystal to perform the beam expansion to the
desired size. Once completed, BEaTriX will be used to directly perform the quality control of focusing modules of large
X-ray optics such as those for the ATHENA X-ray observatory, based on either Silicon Pore Optics (baseline) or Slumped
Glass Optics (alternative), and will thereby enable a direct quality control of angular resolution and effective area on a
number of mirror modules in a short time, in full X-ray illumination and without being affected by the finite distance of
the X-ray source. However, since the individual mirror modules for ATHENA will have an optical quality of 3-4 arcsec
HEW or better, BEaTriX is required to produce a broad beam with divergence below 1-2 arcsec, and sufficient flux to
quickly characterize the PSF of the module without being significantly affected by statistical uncertainties. Therefore, the
optical components of BEaTriX have to be selected and/or manufactured with excellent optical properties in order to
guarantee the final performance of the system. In this paper we report the final design of the facility and a detailed
A blazed diffraction grating for the EUV lithography Beamline 12.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source has been
fabricated using optical direct write lithography and anisotropic wet etching technology. A variable line spacing
pattern was recorded on a photoresist layer and transferred to a hard mask layer of the grating substrate by a plasma
etch. Then anisotropic wet etching was applied to shape triangular grating grooves with precise control of the ultralow
blaze angle. Variation of the groove density along the grating length was measured with a Long Trace Profiler
(LTP). Fourier analysis of the LTP data confirmed high groove placement accuracy of the grating. The grating
coated with a Ru coating demonstrated diffraction efficiency of 69.6% in the negative first diffraction order which is
close to theoretical efficiency at the wavelength of 13.5 nm. This work demonstrates an alternative approach to
fabrication of highly efficient and precise x-ray diffraction gratings with ultra-low blaze angles.
Multilayer mirrors (MLM) with narrow spectral bandwidth are important for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging
experiments in order to improve the spectral resolution. To overcome the bandwidth limit of conventional
multilayers, single order lamellar multilayer grating (LMG) is one of the most promising methods. Driven by the
high resolution spectroscopy for the plasma diagnosis at E=~1keV, single order LMG based on MoSi2/Si multilayer
is developed. The multilayer period is 5.0 nm, with the Si thickness ratio of 0.6. An LMG with 600 nm grating
period and 1:2 line-to-space ratio is designed. As it works at the single order diffraction regime, the 0th order peak
reflectance (in theory) of the LMG is 45.4% at E=1.2 keV, which is the same as the multilayer mirror. The
bandwidth can be reduced by 3 times compared to the planar multilayer. To demonstrate this LMG structure,
MoSi2/Si multilayers have been deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. Deep reactive ion etching
technique is under optimization in order to produce the multilayer grating structure with a high aspect-ratio of
A concept of an inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectrograph with an imaging analyzer was proposed recently and
discussed in a number of publications (see e.g. Ref.1). The imaging analyzer as proposed combines x-ray lenses with
highly dispersive crystal optics. It allows conversion of the x-ray energy spectrum into a spatial image with very high
energy resolution. However, the presented theoretical analysis of the spectrograph did not take into account details of the
scattered radiation source, i.e. sample, and its impact on the spectrograph performance. Using numerical simulations we
investigated the influence of the finite sample thickness, the scattering angle and the incident energy detuning on the
analyzer image and the ultimate resolution.
We report on the manufacturing and X-ray tests of bent diamond-crystal X-ray spectrographs, designed for
noninvasive diagnostics of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) spectra in the spectral range from 5 to 15 keV.
The key component is a curved, 20-μm thin, single crystalline diamond triangular plate in the (110) orientation.
The radius of curvature can be varied between R = 0:6 m and R = 0:1 m in a controlled fashion, ensuring
imaging in a spectral window of up to 60 eV for ~ 8 keV X-rays. All of the components of the bending
mechanism (about 10 parts) are manufactured from diamond, thus ensuring safe operations in intense XFEL
beams. The spectrograph is transparent to 88% for 5-keV photons, and to 98% for 15-keV photons. Therefore,
it can be used for noninvasive diagnostics of the X-ray spectra during XFEL operations.
Several single crystal CVD diamonds with (001) and (111) surface orientations were studied using x-ray diffraction rocking curve mapping in the double-crystal pseudo plane-wave configuration using Bragg reflection geometry. Strongly nonuniform distributions of rocking curve parameters on the studied crystal surfaces were observed, which indicates that the crystals exhibit substantial lattice distortions. Selected crystal pairs were tested in the nondispersive double-crystal configuration using polychromatic bending magnet synchrotron radiation. The results suggest that CVD diamond crystals could be used as high-flux broadband x-ray monochromators in applications where preservation of the radiation wavefront is not a primary goal.
Multilayer monochromators are widely needed in synchrotron beamlines to provide the high photon flux as compared to
crystals. Ru/B4C multilayer is the most promising candidate working at the energy region of 10-20 keV. To develop this
multilayer monochromator for an undulator beamline with high power density, the layer structure and reflectivity of the
multilayer were studied. The deposition process for the Ru/B4C multilayers was first optimized. Multilayers with
different periods (d=2.0 nm, 3.0 nm, 4.0 nm) and single layers fo Ru and B4C were fabricated and characterized using
the grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry (GIXR). A low density of Ru in the multilayers was found as compared to the
single layers which attributed to the relatively low reflectance of 53.3% at 8.05 keV of the multilayer with 3.0 nm period.
X-ray imaging of the laser produced plasma plays an important role in plasma diagnostics. Based on the urgent needs of
conducting deeper and finer physical experiments, we developed a high-energy Kirkpatrick Baez microscope working at
17.48keV with a spectral resolution (E/▵E) of ~30. The concave spherical substrates was polished, ultrasonically cleaned
and coated. The substrates have a radius of curvature of 20m with a roughness better than 0.3nm. The grazing incidence
angles are designed at 0.7° and 0.73° for separate reflecting mirrors. The x-ray backlit imaging experiments show its
spatial resolution is ~5.5μm at best focus. The effective field of view is measured to be ~90μm, which is consistent with
the multilayer design. This article provides detailed informations for the optical design, multilayers coating and
characterization of the microscope. The microscope promises to be a high-energy, high-resolution, and energy resolved
X-ray diagnostics instrument for SG series laser facility.
The growing interest in the study of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-matter interaction is feeding up the
development of new technologies able to overcame some current technological limits. Adaptive optics is an established
technology already widely used for wavefront correction in many applications such as astronomical telescopes, laser
communications, high power laser systems, microscopy and high resolution imaging systems. Although this technology
is already exploited in the EUV and X-ray range, its usage is only feasible in systems with a grazing incidence
configuration. On the other hand, the development of a EUV normal incidence adaptive optics can open new interesting
possibilities in many different fields ranging from free electron laser and synchrotron applications up to EUV
In this work we report the preliminary results achieved in the developing of a normal incidence EUV multilayered
adaptive mirror tuned at 30.4nm. The proper functioning and potential applications of such device have been
demonstrated by using a High order Harmonics Generation (HHG) source.
Nickel is the unique material in the X-ray telescopes. And it has the typical soft material characteristics with low hardness、high surface damage and low stability of thermal. The traditional fabrication techniques are exposed to lots of problems, including great surface scratches, high sub-surface damage and poor surface roughness and so on. The current fabrication technology for the nickel aspheric mainly adopt the single point diamond turning(SPDT), which has lots of advantages such as high efficiency, ultra-precision surface figure, low sub-surface damage and so on. But the residual surface texture of SPDT will cause great scattering losses and fall far short from the requirement in the X-ray applications. This paper mainly investigates the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques for the super-smooth processing on the nickel optics. Through the study of the MRF polishing techniques, we obtained the ideal super-smooth polishing technique based on the self-controlled MRF-fluid NS-1, and finished the high-precision surface figure lower than RMS λ/80 (λ=632.8nm) and super-smooth roughness lower than Ra 0.3nm on the plane reflector and roughness lower than Ra 0.4nm on the convex cone. The studying of the MRF techniques makes a great effort to the state-of-the-art nickel material processing level for the X-ray optical systems applications.
Due to the weak interaction of X-rays with matter and their small wavelength on the atomic scale, stringent requirements are put on X-ray optics manufacturing and metrology. As a result, these optics often suffer from aberrations. Until now, X-ray optics were mainly characterized by their focal spot size and efficiency. How- ever, both measures provide only insufficient information about optics quality. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of residual aberrations in current beryllium compound refractive lenses using ptychography followed by a determination of the wavefront error and subsequent Zernike polynomial decomposition. Known from visible light optics, we show that these measures can provide an adequate tool to determine and compare the quality of various X-ray optics.
Femto-second laser processing of polycrystalline CVD diamond was applied to manufacturing of X-ray planar refractive
lenses. Surface morphology and material quality were analyzed with optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray
radiography. Lenses were tested in a focusing mode at the IIIrd generation synchrotron radiation source (ESRF).
Two dimensional compound refractive lenses (CRL) made out of single crystal diamond had been recently demonstrated [1, 2]. The use of compound refractive lens is inevitably associated with high x-ray absorption. One of the benefits of diamond as a material for CRL is its ability to withstand high instantaneous and average heat load. We used finite element method to simulate thermal effects in the lens. A steady state simulation is done for high average heat load conditions of ultimate storage rings. A time domain simulation is used for high peak power XFEL case. We compare diamond with beryllium, a common material for the CRL, and find that diamond temperature rise is less even though its x-ray absorption is higher.
Brilliant beams of hard x-rays, with geometrical cross-sections below 50×50 nm2, are a standard research tool for
synchrotron users. With the advent of lower emittance sources, such as NSLSII, Petra III and Max IV, and planned
upgraded lattices, such as APS-2, SPING8-II, ESRF II and DLS II, nanofocusing optics operating in transmission mode
will become more competitive than they are currently. In general, they suffer from lower efficiency than reflective
optics, however they often have easier set-up and alignment, combined with a smaller footprint. Fabrication and
exploitation of ultra-short focal refractive lenses has not witnessed the same progress in the last decade as other optics,
such as multilayer mirrors and multilayer Laue lenses. This paper reports on current status of high-resolution lithography
for fabricating silicon lenses and on proposed designs for a new class of refractive lenses with zero aberrations and good
efficiency. The new designs are created with geometrical parameters matching the spatial resolution achieved by modern
lithography and silicon etch technology.
Numerous atomic and molecular transitions that provide important diagnostics for astrophysical research exist in the
Lyman-ultraviolet (LUV; 91.2 - 121.6 nm) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 121.6 - 200 nm) bandpasses. Future astronomy and
planetary science missions require the development of mirror coatings with improved reflectance between 90 - 200 nm
which maintain optical performance in visible and IR wavelengths (320 - 2000 nm). Towards this end, we have developed
an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for optical coatings to enhance the efficiency of future space observatories. We
measured the reflectance from 115-826 nm of sample optics, consisting of silicon wafers coated with lithium fluoride films
deposited via ALD. We also measured the reflectance of sample optics stored in various environments, and characterized
the effect of storage environment on visible and UV optical performance over week-long time scales. Minimal change in
optical performance was observed for wavelengths between 200 and 800 nm, regardless of storage environment.
This paper describes the preliminary analysis and design of a water-cooled multilayer monochromator (MLM) system for the Illinois Institute of Technology’s BioCAT beamline at Argonne National Laboratory. The first substrate is designed to handle the heat load of an undulator beam with low tangential slope errors. The substrates will each have two multilayer coating strips to provide high flux 12 keV beams with either 0.5% or 1% spectral bandwidth. The new multilayer system which will be added to the beamline is expected to provide an increased photon flux of 50 to 100 times compared with the existing double crystal monochromator system and thus enhance beamline throughput and performance for applications where higher bandwidth is acceptable.
In the field of target diagnostics for Initial Confinement Fusion experiment, high resolution X-ray imaging system is
seriously necessary to record the evolution details of target ablation-front disturbance at different energy points of backlight
conditions. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror is a wide used imaging system to achieve a large efficient field of view with high
spatial resolution and energy transmitting capability. In this paper, we designed a novel type of reflective microscope based
on Kirkpatrick-Baez structure, and this system can achieve 5μm spatial resolution at 600μm field of view specific energy
point in one dimension.